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4/29/2010, 12:55 am من طرف محمد احمد

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موسوعه شامله لكل مسلم يحب دينه _ ساعد على نشرها واكسب اجر كبير

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تحتوي الموسوعه على التالى :-


1-التاريخ الإسلامى بالكامل


http://www.as7apcool.com/islam/index.php?book=6&id=1



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سحابة الكلمات الدلالية


Prescription Drug Abuse

استعرض الموضوع السابق استعرض الموضوع التالي اذهب الى الأسفل

Prescription Drug Abuse

مُساهمة من طرف sheto في 3/31/2011, 1:51 am






Prescription Drug Abuse



Angie overheard her parents talking about how her brother's ADHD
medicine was making him less hungry. Because Angie was worried about her
weight, she started sneaking one of her brother's pills every few days.


Todd found an old bottle of painkillers that had been left over from
his dad's operation. He decided to try them. Because a doctor had
prescribed the pills, Todd figured that meant they'd be OK to try.


Both Todd and Angie are taking risks. Prescription painkillers and
other medications help lots of people live more productive lives,
freeing them from the symptoms of medical conditions like depression or
attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). But that's only when
they're prescribed for a particular individual to treat a specific
condition.


Taking prescription drugs in a way that hasn't been recommended by a
doctor can be more dangerous than people think. In fact, it's drug
abuse. And it's just as illegal as taking street drugs.


Why Do Some People Abuse Prescription Drugs?







Some people experiment with prescription drugs because they think
they will help them have more fun, lose weight, fit in, and even study
more effectively. Prescription drugs can be easier to get than street
drugs: Family members or friends may have them. But prescription drugs
are also sometimes sold on the street like other illegal drugs.


A 2009 survey from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
shows that prescription drug abuse is on the rise, with 20% of teens
saying they have taken a prescription drug without a doctor's
prescription.


Why? Some people think that prescription drugs are safer and less
addictive than street drugs. After all, these are drugs that moms, dads,
and even kid brothers and sisters use. To Angie, taking her brother's
ADHD medicine felt like a good way to keep her appetite in check. She'd
heard how bad diet pills can be, and she wrongly thought that the ADHD
drugs would be safer.


But prescription drugs are only safe for the individuals who actually
have prescriptions for them. That's because a doctor has examined these
people and prescribed the right dose of medication for a specific
medical condition. The doctor has also told them exactly how they should
take the medicine, including things to avoid while taking the drug —
such as drinking alcohol, smoking, or taking other medications. They
also are aware of potentially dangerous side effects and can monitor
patients closely for these.


Other people who try prescription drugs are like Todd. They think
they're not doing anything illegal because these drugs are prescribed by
doctors. But taking drugs without a prescription — or sharing a
prescription drug with friends — is actually breaking the law.
Which Drugs Are Abused?




The most commonly used prescription drugs fall into three classes:


1. Opioids




  • Examples: oxycodone (OxyContin), hydrocodone (Vicodin), and meperidine (Demerol)
  • Medical uses: Opioids are used to treat pain or relieve coughs or diarrhea.
  • How they work: Opioids attach to opioid receptors
    in the central nervous system (the brain and the spinal cord),
    preventing the brain from receiving pain messages.



2. Central Nervous System (CNS) Depressants




  • Examples: pentobarbital sodium (Nembutal), diazepam (Valium), and alprazolam (Xanax)
  • Medical uses: CNS depressants are used to treat anxiety, tension, panic attacks, and sleep disorders.
  • How they work: CNS depressants slow down brain
    activity by increasing the activity of a neurotransmitter called GABA.
    The result is a drowsy or calming effect.



3. Stimulants




  • Examples: methylphenidate (Ritalin) and amphetamine/dextroamphetamine (Adderall)
  • Medical uses: Stimulants can be used to treat narcolepsy and ADHD.
  • How they work: Stimulants increase brain activity, resulting in greater alertness, attention, and energy.



Over-the-Counter Drugs







Some people mistakenly think that prescription drugs are more
powerful because you need a prescription for them. But it's possible to
abuse or become addicted to over-the-counter (OTC) medications, too.


For example, dextromethorphan (DXM) is found in some OTC cough
medicines. When someone takes the number of teaspoons or tablets that
are recommended, everything is fine. But high doses can cause problems
with the senses (especially vision and hearing) and can lead to
confusion, stomach pain, numbness, and even hallucinations.
What Are the Dangers of Abusing Medications?




Whether they're using street drugs or medications, drug abusers often
have trouble at school, at home, with friends, or with the law. The
likelihood that someone will commit a crime, be a victim of a crime, or
have an accident is higher when that person is abusing drugs — no matter
whether those drugs are medications or street drugs.


Like all drug abuse, using prescription drugs for the wrong reasons
has serious risks for a person's health. Opioid abuse can lead to
vomiting, mood changes, decrease in ability to think (cognitive
function), and even decreased respiratory function, coma, or death. This
risk is higher when prescription drugs like opioids are taken with
other substances like alcohol, antihistamines, and CNS depressants.


CNS depressants have risks, too. Abruptly stopping or reducing them
too quickly can lead to seizures. Taking CNS depressants with other
medications, such as prescription painkillers, some over-the-counter
cold and allergy medications, or alcohol can slow a person's heartbeat
and breathing — and even kill.


Abusing stimulants (like some ADHD drugs) may cause heart failure or
seizures. These risks are increased when stimulants are mixed with other
medicines — even OTC ones like certain cold medicines. Taking too much
of a stimulant can lead a person to develop a dangerously high body
temperature or an irregular heartbeat. Taking several high doses over a
short period of time may make a drug abuser aggressive or paranoid.
Although stimulant abuse might not lead to physical dependence and
withdrawal, the feelings these drugs give people can cause them to use
the drugs more and more often so they become a habit that's hard to
break.


The dangers of prescription drug abuse can be made even worse if
people take drugs in a way they weren't intended to be used. Ritalin may
seem harmless because it's prescribed even for little kids with ADHD.
But when a person takes it either unnecessarily or in a way it wasn’t
intended to be used such as snorting or injection, Ritalin toxicity can
be serious. And because there can be many variations of the same
medication, the dose of medication and how long it stays in the body can
vary. The person who doesn't have a prescription might not really know
which one he or she has.


Probably the most common result of prescription drug abuse is addiction
People who abuse medications can become addicted just as easily as if
they were taking street drugs. The reason many drugs have to be
prescribed by a doctor is because some of them are quite addictive.
That's one of the reasons most doctors won't usually renew a
prescription unless they see the patient — they want to examine the
patient to make sure he or she isn't getting addicted.



How Do I Know if I'm Addicted?




Many different signs can point to drug addiction. The most obvious is
feeling the need to have a particular drug or substance. Changes in
mood, weight, or interests are other signs of drug addiction.


If you think you — or a friend — may be addicted to prescription
drugs, talk to your doctor, school counselor, or nurse. They can help
you get the help you need. It's especially important for someone who is
going through withdrawal from a CNS depressant to speak with a doctor or
seek medical treatment. Withdrawal can be dangerous when it's not
monitored.


If someone has become addicted to prescription drugs, there are
several kinds of treatment, depending on individual needs and the type
of drug used. The two main categories of drug addiction treatment are behavioral and pharmacological.


Behavioral treatments teach people how to function without drugs —
handling cravings, avoiding drugs and situations that could lead to drug
use, and preventing and handling relapses. Pharmacological treatments
involve giving patients a special type of medication to help them
overcome withdrawal symptoms and drug cravings.


Tips for Taking Prescription Medication




What if a doctor prescribed a medication for you and you're worried
about becoming addicted? If you're taking the medicine the way your
doctor told you to, you can relax: Doctors know how much medication to
prescribe so that it's just enough for you. In the correct amount, the
drug will relieve your symptoms without making you addicted.


If a doctor prescribes a pain medication, stimulant, or CNS
depressant, follow the directions exactly. Here are some other ways to
protect yourself:




  • Keep all doctor's appointments. Your doctor will want you to visit
    often so he or she can monitor how well the medication is working for
    you and adjust the dose or change the medication as needed. Some
    medications must be stopped or changed after a while so that the person
    doesn't become addicted.
  • Make a note of the effects the drug has on your body and emotions,
    especially in the first few days as your body gets used to it. Tell your
    doctor about these.
  • Keep any information your pharmacist gives you about any drugs or
    activities you should steer clear of while taking your prescription.
    Reread it often to remind yourself of what you should avoid. If the
    information is too long or complicated, ask a parent or your pharmacist
    to give you the highlights.
  • Don't increase or decrease the dose of your medication without
    checking with your doctor's office first — no matter how you're feeling.



Finally, never use someone else's prescription. And don't allow a
friend to use yours. Not only are you putting your friend at risk, but
you could suffer, too: Pharmacists won't refill a prescription if a
medication has been used up before it should be. And if you're found
giving medication to someone else, it's considered a crime and you could
find yourself in court.






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